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Version: v3.8.x

Mutation

The mutation feature allows Gatekeeper modify Kubernetes resources at request time based on customizable mutation policies.

🚧 This feature is in beta stage and it is enabled by default.

Mutation CRDs

Mutation policies are defined using mutation-specific CRDs, called mutators:

  • AssignMetadata - defines changes to the metadata section of a resource
  • Assign - any change outside the metadata section
  • ModifySet - adds or removes entries from a list, such as the arguments to a container

The rules for mutating metadata are more strict than for mutating the rest of the resource. The differences are described in more detail below.

Here is an example of a simple AssignMetadata CRD:

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: AssignMetadata
metadata:
name: demo-annotation-owner
spec:
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
location: "metadata.annotations.owner"
parameters:
assign:
value: "admin"

Each mutation CRD can be divided into 3 distinct sections:

  • extent of changes - what is to be modified (kinds, namespaces, ...)
  • intent - the path and value of the modification
  • conditional - conditions under which the mutation will be applied

Extent of changes

The extent of changes section describes which resources will be mutated. It allows selecting resources to be mutated using the same match criteria as constraints.

An example of the extent of changes section.

applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced | Cluster
kinds:
- apiGroups: []
kinds: []
labelSelector: []
namespaces: []
namespaceSelector: []
excludedNamespaces: []

Note that the applyTo field is required for Assign and ModifySet mutators, and does not exist for AssignMetadata mutators. applyTo allows Gatekeeper to understand the schema of the objects being modified, so that it can detect when two mutators disagree as to a kind's schema, which can cause non-convergent mutations. Also, the applyTo section does not accept globs.

The match section is common to all mutators. It supports the following match criteria:

  • scope - the scope (Namespaced | Cluster) of the mutated resource
  • kinds - the resource kind, any of the elements listed
  • labelSelector - filters resources by resource labels listed
  • namespaces - list of allowed namespaces, only resources in listed namespaces will be mutated
  • namespaceSelector - filters resources by namespace selector
  • excludedNamespaces - list of excluded namespaces, resources in listed namespaces will not be mutated

Note that any empty/undefined match criteria are inclusive: they match any object.

Intent

This specifies what should be changed in the resource.

An example of the section is shown below:

location: "spec.containers[name: foo].imagePullPolicy"
parameters:
assign:
value: "Always"

The location element specifies the path to be modified. The parameters.assign.value element specifies the value to be set for the element specified in location. Note that the value can either be a simple string or a composite value.

An example of a composite value:

location: "spec.containers[name: networking]"
parameters:
assign:
value:
name: "networking"
imagePullPolicy: Always

The location element can specify either a simple subelement or an element in a list. For example the location spec.containers[name:foo].imagePullPolicy would be parsed as follows:

  • *spec.containers[name: foo].imagePullPolicy* - the spec element
  • spec.containers[name: foo].imagePullPolicy - container subelement of spec. The container element is a list. Out of the list chosen, an element with the name element having the value foo.
  • *spec.containers[name: foo].imagePullPolicy* - in the element from the list chosen in the previous step the element imagePullPolicy is chosen

The yaml illustrating the above location:

spec:
containers:
- name: foo
imagePullPolicy:

Wildcards can be used for list element values: spec.containers[name: *].imagePullPolicy

Assigning values from metadata

This section does not apply to ModifySet mutators

Sometimes it's useful to assign a field's value from metadata. For instance, injecting a deployment's name into its pod template's labels to use affinity/anti-affinity rules to keep Pods from the same deployment on different nodes.

Assign and AssignMetadata can do this via the fromMetadata field. Here is an example:

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: AssignMetadata
metadata:
name: demo-annotation-owner
spec:
location: "metadata.labels.namespace"
parameters:
assign:
fromMetadata:
field: namespace

Valid values for spec.parameters.assign.fromMetadata.field are namespace and name. They will inject the namespace's name and the object's name, respectively.

Conditionals

The conditions for updating the resource.

Mutation has path tests, which make it so the resource will only be mutated if the specified path exists/does not exist. This can be useful for things like setting a default value if a field is undeclared, or for avoiding creating a field when a parent is missing, such as accidentally creating an empty sidecar named "foo" in the example below:

parameters:
pathTests:
- subPath: "spec.containers[name: foo]"
condition: MustExist
- subPath: spec.containers[name: foo].securityContext.capabilities
condition: MustNotExist

AssignMetadata

AssignMetadata is a mutator that modifies the metadata section of a resource. Note that the metadata of a resource is a very sensitive piece of data, and certain mutations could result in unintended consequences. An example of this could be changing the name or namespace of a resource. The AssignMetadata changes have therefore been limited to only the labels and annotations. Furthermore, it is currently only allowed to add a label or annotation. Pre-existing labels and annotations cannot be modified.

An example of an AssignMetadata adding a label owner set to admin:

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: AssignMetadata
metadata:
name: demo-annotation-owner
spec:
match:
scope: Namespaced
location: "metadata.labels.owner"
parameters:
assign:
value: "admin"

ModifySet

ModifySet is a mutator that allows for the adding and removal of items from a list as if that list were a set. New values are appended to the end of a list.

For example, the following mutator removes an --alsologtostderr argument from all containers in a pod:

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: ModifySet
metadata:
name: remove-err-logging
spec:
location: "spec.containers[name: *].args"
parameters:
operation: prune
values:
fromList:
- --alsologtostderr
  • spec.parameters.values.fromList holds the list of values that will be added or removed.
  • operation can be merge to insert values into the list if missing, or prune to remove values from the list. merge is default.

Examples

Adding an annotation

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: AssignMetadata
metadata:
name: demo-annotation-owner
spec:
match:
scope: Namespaced
location: "metadata.annotations.owner"
parameters:
assign:
value: "admin"

Setting security context of a specific container in a Pod in a namespace to be non-privileged

Set the security context of container named foo in a Pod in namespace bar to be non-privileged

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: Assign
metadata:
name: demo-privileged
spec:
applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
namespaces: ["bar"]
location: "spec.containers[name:foo].securityContext.privileged"
parameters:
assign:
value: false

Setting imagePullPolicy of all containers to Always in all namespaces except namespace system

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: Assign
metadata:
name: demo-image-pull-policy
spec:
applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
excludedNamespaces: ["system"]
location: "spec.containers[name:*].imagePullPolicy"
parameters:
assign:
value: Always

Adding a network sidecar to a Pod

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: Assign
metadata:
name: demo-sidecar
spec:
applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
location: "spec.containers[name:networking]"
parameters:
assign:
value:
name: "networking"
imagePullPolicy: Always
image: quay.io/foo/bar:latest
command: ["/bin/bash", "-c", "sleep INF"]

Adding dnsPolicy and dnsConfig to a Pod

apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: Assign
metadata:
name: demo-dns-policy
spec:
applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
location: "spec.dnsPolicy"
parameters:
assign:
value: None
---
apiVersion: mutations.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: Assign
metadata:
name: demo-dns-config
spec:
applyTo:
- groups: [""]
kinds: ["Pod"]
versions: ["v1"]
match:
scope: Namespaced
kinds:
- apiGroups: ["*"]
kinds: ["Pod"]
location: "spec.dnsConfig"
parameters:
assign:
value:
nameservers:
- 1.2.3.4

External Data

See External Data For Gatekeeper Mutating Webhook.